Over the past two decades, HCI researchers have developed a broad range of new interfaces that diverge from the "window, icon, menu, pointing device" (WIMP) or Direct Manipulation interaction style. Development of this new generation of post-WIMP interfaces has been fueled by advances in computer technology and improved understanding of human psychology. Some examples of these post-WIMP interaction styles are: virtual, mixed and augmented reality, tangible interaction, ubiquitous and pervasive computing, context-aware computing, handheld, or mobile interaction, perceptual and affective computing as well as lightweight, tacit or passive interaction. Although some may see these interaction styles as disparate innovations proceeding on unrelated fronts, we propose that they share salient and important commonalities, which can help us understand, connect, and analyze them. We believe that all of these new interaction styles draw strength by building on users' pre-existing knowledge of the everyday, non-digital world to a much greater extent than before.
To a greater extent than in previous generations, these four themes play a prominent role in emerging interaction styles. They provide a basis for interaction with computers that is markedly closer to our interaction with the non-digital world.